Do you know that, according to scientists, intestines functions as a second brain?

Mentioned below, how important colonoscopy is for all of us!

How a colonoscopy is done: Preparation and procedure

Colonoscopy is a medical examination performed with sedation and examines the inside of the colon. A catheter with camera is inserted through the anus and the colon is examined along its entire length. The procedure can detect inflammatory tissues, ulcers, abnormal lumps, polyps and colon cancer. This is a simple and safe test that lasts 30-60 minutes.

There are many indications for a colonoscopy but the most common are: Blood in the stool, black stools, chronic diarrhea, iron deficiency anemia, weight loss with symptomatology from the lower gastrointestinal tract, family history of polyps or colorectal cancer, colorectal cancer bowel disease to control and avoid complications.

A basic goal is to prevent colon cancer. This cancer originates from adenomatous polyps which can exist for years in the large intestine without showing symptoms. According to the latest studies, 40% of all colon cancers could be prevented if all people over the age of 50 had a colonoscopy. The test can also reduce colorectal cancer mortality by 60%. This conclusion is based on the monitoring of 88,900 volunteers for two decades. Cancer develops in the polyp in period of 5-10 years. The long biological path to malignancy gives time to prevent cancer.

To the question "When should a colonoscopy be performed?", researchers answer at least once every 10 years, starting at the age of 50. However, those with a family history of colon cancer or a family history of polyps or diabetes should be screened more often and start at a younger age. Note that, diabetes and abdominal obesity are associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. Younger men and women with diabetes have rates of polyps similar to older people without diabetes. It is also important to say that men are twice as vulnerable to colon cancer opposins to women.

Sigmoidoscopy, which is recommended once every 5 years, is an examination similar to a colonoscopy, except that it does not examine the entire large intestine but its lower part (the large intestine has the anion colon as its first part, after followed by the transverse colon, the cation colon, the sigmoid colon, and the rectum ending in the anus.

In private hospitals the cost of the colonoscopy is around 180-250 euros (including fees for doctors & medicines-materials) and if necessary, a biopsy there is an additional cost of 45 euros. In public hospitals the cost is lower.



The doctor usually gives the patient written instructions on how to prepare for colonoscopy. The process of preparing the bowel for the test aims to empty all the solids present in the gastrointestinal tract before the test.

The patient should follow a special diet without fiber for two days before the colonoscopy. His diet should be based on liquid foods and without beverages containing red or burgundy color. Fluids that the patient may receive include non-fat broths, filtered juices that have no fiber, water, coffee and tea without the addition of other formulation.

On the first day you can consume, meat, fish, boiled or roasted chicken, and their broth (for instance: soups without rice and without pasta). Creams, jello, yogurt, milk, tea, chamomile, etc .. Drink as much fluid as you can. Do not eat bread, toast, pasta, rice, legumes, herbs, fruits, potatoes, nuts, composts. On the second day (before the test) you can eat soup (plain) and yogurt at noon and soup (plain) in the evening.

The night before the colonoscopy you will need to get laxative from the pharmacy. The medicine is called ……… .A box contains 4 sachets. Dissolve each sachet in 1 liter of water. So you will have 4 liters of water with the drug dissolved. You will drink from this solution 1 - 1.5 glasses every quarter of an hour, for example 1 liter per hour. This will keep you going to the toilet and will cleanse your gut. The medicine is considered to work well when you defecate in clean water.


How is it done?

In any case, the colonoscopy is performed with sedation, a mild sedative is administered so while the patient is conscious, he does not feel any pain. This is an intravenous injection of a sedative.

Colonoscopy when performed by an experienced, specialized gastroenterologist is a completely painless examination for the patient. The patient leans on the examination table. The doctor then inserts a 120 cm long hose, the endoscope, through the anus. Slowly insert the endoscope to the rectum and then to the sigmoid colon. The endoscope releases gas (carbon dioxide) that slightly inflates the bowel and allows the doctor to have a better view. There is a small camera built into the endoscope that transmits video images to a computer screen. This way the doctor can carefully examine the inner walls of the intestine. The doctor might also ask the patient to move a little sometimes so that he will be able to see better inside the bowel.

The endoscope climbs up from the sigmoid colon, to the cation, to the transverse and finally to the anion colon. When it reaches the opening of the small intestine it stops and the doctor slowly starts to pull out the endoscope. During the defusal procedure, the doctor re-examines the walls of the colon. In the one hour after the examination, the patient may have some pain or swelling. The sedative takes time to expel.


Polyps removal and biopsy

During the colonoscopy, the gastroenterologist can detect a polyp and remove it, thus preventing a possible future progression to cancer. That’s why colonoscopy is an ideal test for the prevention of colon cancer. Polyps larger than 6 mm are usually removed. The polyps are then examined under a microscope (biopsy) to see if they have signs of cancer.

In addition to removing polyps, the doctor may take biopsies from tissues that look abnormal. Subsequent microscopic examination of these samples can show whether or not there is a disease.

The biopsy and removal of polyps from the large intestine is done with the help of very small tools that come with the endoscope. If there is a complication of bleeding, the doctor can stop it with a special electric surgical tool or medication through the endoscope.

Possible complications of the test include bleeding and perforation of the colon but are rare. Other complications may include abdominal pain, fever, bleeding, dizziness, and weakness.


Stool analysis

It should be noted that many patients are reluctant to undergo a colonoscopy due to the unpleasant feelings it creates (the procedure requires preparation with a large amount of laxative while being invasive). However, alternatives are offered, such as stool testing.

Stool test (test for blood in the stool) once a year reduces the risk of dying from colon cancer by 30%, while once every two years the risk is reduced by 20%. The figures are based on a study recently published by scientists at the University of Minnesota who followed 46,500 volunteers for 16 years.